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Solid Waste Reduction through Community Participation

Tangerang, Indonesia
August 3, 2016

CDIA Intervention: JUN/2013 – OCT/2013

Sector: Solid Waste Management

CDIA Support: US$ 50,000

Estimated Investment Value: US$ 91.1 million


With a population of 1,797,715, Tangerang is located in the Province of Banten, about 25 km west of Jakarta. It is the third largest urban center in the Jabotabek region after Jakarta and Bekasi. Tangerang is an industrial and manufacturing hub and home to over 1,000 factories.

In 2006, Tangerang was declared the Dirtiest City in Indonesia. This title served as a wakeup call and prodded the city officials to rise up to the challenge of positively changing the city’s reputation. The city began implementing simple steps such as providing segregated waste bins to help make their city clean.

To push things further, the City of Tangerang took a very important action from 2011- 2012 when they developed a comprehensive Master Plan for Solid Waste Management (SWM). The Consulting Firm contracted to prepare the master plan came up with following broad outcomes:

  • Assessment of the SWM chain from all perspectives including regulatory, institutional,  technical, financial, environmental and social.
  • Sampling program at the residential areas to come up with waste generation data and at the existing Rawa Kucing landfill site to come up with waste density.
  • Optimization of solid waste minimization techniques (3R approach – Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) and efficient treatment of the organic portion of the waste for the whole city.

Following the Master Plan development, the City took another important action of developing a detailed Feasibility Study (FS) and Detailed Engineering Design (DED) for the rehabilitation, closure and upgrading the existing RawaKucing dump site to a sanitary landfill.

All these efforts translated into city-level actions got them the Adipua Kencana (Clean and Green) City Award from the Indonesian President himself in 2012 and in 2013.

In 2013, CDIA also approved the city’s request contracted a team of solid waste specialists covering the various aspects of the SWM sector to undertake the TA activities developed for the project. CDIA-supported activities also included the review of existing SWM studies and appraisal of existing Solid Waste Management systems in Tangerang from collection to final disposal, in order to provide recommendations for the City to upgrade and substantially improve the SW sector, and to operate a sustainable and integrated integrated Solid Waste Management system for the city; and a review of the detailed engineering design and feasibility for rehabilitation and upgrading of the City’s existing landfill Rawa Kucing.

By 2015, the city has established 1000 waste banks and has revitalized the landfill. To increase public awareness and engagement, social events such as a waste festival were held to
complement community-based waste segregation schemes.

Response and Innovation

In 2013, CDIA carried out a detailed Solid Waste Management study providing Tangerang City with a sustainable and integrated SWM system that was in line with the directions of the City’s Master Plan set by the Government of Indonesia. CDIA offered the City with the following investment packages:

  • INVESTMENT PACKAGE 1 – Collection and Transportation
    CDIA recommended the collection and transportation scheme in selected pilot areas and expand the coverage gradually in the following 2 years to reach full capacity by year 2018.
  • INVESTMENT PACKAGE 2 – Material Recovery Facilities (MRF)
    CDIA recommended new MRFs to cost efficiently process recyclables to be transported to the RawaKucing landfill site and expand gradually to cover the full the City.
  • INVESTMENT PACKAGE 3 – Intermediate Treatment Facility or ITF
    Anaerobic digestion to electricity generation plant.
  • INVESTMENT PACKAGE 4 – Landfill Rehabilitation and Re-engineering Development

The study had a number of components that encompassed the whole SWM chain from collection to final disposal to serve the city for the next 30 years (up to 2043). Critically, the packages were tailored to maximize their suitability for inclusion in an anticipated World Bank funding program.

This WB program was delayed but in 2014, Tangerang began implementing the recommendations and proposals contained in the CDIA study that it could afford to carry out by itself.

Lessons Learned

  1. A strong leadership and political will is key. Strong leadership from the Mayor of Tangerang City paved the way for a strategic approach on how to deal with the city’s SWM problems.
  2. Encourage and practice active community involvement. The City targeted the basic unit where garbage is generated – the households. All households were provided with garbage bins for segregated collection of organics and inorganics. The citizens were also instructed on how to use the communal collection points, among others.
  3. Seek expert advice. Approaching and including external and international technical experts for advice and recommendations creates more opportunities and knowledge transfer.
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